The Accuracy International AX PSR was developed to compete in USSOCOM’s solicitation H92222-09-PSR2 for a “Precision Sniper Rifle” on 15 January 2009. The essence behind this solicitation and the numerous amendments that followed resulted in a final request for a modular rifle that could be quickly transformed from a 7.62mm to a .300 Winchester Magnum to a .338 Lapua Magnum….
Mesko, Poland’s leading ammunition manufacturer turns 90 this summer. From the beginning it was meant to provide the Polish Army with high-quality ammunition – and within the intervening years that’s what the plant, through its many guises, always did….
A defining moment for a sniper is when he can positively identify a threat within his area of operation and exercise certain actions, from an intelligence report to target neutralization. The ability to identify a target is vital in a stability operation or counterinsurgency (COIN) environment, where precisely aimed fire is at a premium and collateral damage isn’t an option….
One does not often think of shotguns as viable combat weapons and in the law enforcement arena, shotguns have lost traction in favor of the patrol carbine. The destructive power of the 12 gauge shotgun is not disputed; the real issues with the changeover had more to do with the patrol carbine being more versatile with its ability to penetrate body armor and reduce collateral damage from stray pellets. In the military arena, the shotgun still has its place but it’s rather limited. The standard….
The Croatian Armed Forces are changing from an army of defenders of their homeland, and becoming an Armed Forces that are preparing for entry into Euro-Atlantic political-military associations. They have become an army that contributes to building peace and stability, by taking part in peacekeeping missions under leadership of the UN or NATO. From a country that was the recipient of peace missions during the Homeland War, Croatia and its Armed Forces have, in a very short time, become an important factor in establishing and keeping peace in the world. Participation in peace missions is undoubtedly a confirmation of the maturity….
Stationary Protection: Unmanned Watchtower with a Remotely Operated Weapon Station and Electro-Optical Equipment
At foreign missions in the military area, there is often no infrastructure that will meet the needs of troops. In Afghanistan, the military camps of the “International Assistance Force” (ISAF) form the infrastructural backbone and the logistical hub. It acts as an alarm and withdrawal base for rapid deployment, material depot, area hospital, military control center and also act as a rest and regeneration place for the away from home operating forces. Without this fixed infrastructure….
Almost lost in a sea of plastic-fantastic new-wave “museums of idea, not objects” resplendent in touch-screens and 3D displays, but lacking substance and exhibits, in Germany there is a besieged island of a good, old time museum close to bursting its seams with the most fascinating hardware; a variety and quality of which is getting harder and harder to find….
The AR-15/M16/M4 series rifle is undoubtedly the most popular rifle in the United State for all military, law enforcement and commercial markets. It is the most versatile platform of a rifle on the face of the planet. Another rifle has crept up into that popularity; one that was on the scrap heap of the U.S. Army for nearly 40 years. That would be the one that started it all, the AR-10. “Tomorrow’s Rifle Today” in the late 1950s has turned out to be today’s rifle today. The rifle that Ordnance Corp….
Feedback from Afghanistan was clear – much small-arms combat was taking place at far greater distances than expected, a lot more than the U.S. Army’s standard carbine and light machine gun were designed for. The Army was being outgunned, and had to rush older, more powerful weapons to the dismounted troops. These did the job, at the cost of significantly greater weight and recoil. Mitch Shoffner has come up with a different solution – the 6.5×40, a new cartridge designed to fit….
Up until the 1960s, all machine guns manufactured in China were of foreign design. Earliest of these were well known copies of the German Maxim MG 08, generally known as Type 24 machine guns, chambered for 7.9mm Mauser ammunition of German origin. Lesser known weapons were locally made copies of the Browning M1917 and Schwarzlose M1907/12 machine guns, made between the two World Wars in very limited numbers. Light machine guns included domestic copies of Czechoslovak ZB-26 and ZB-30, as well as the Swiss SIG KE-7 machine guns, also chambered for 7.9mm Mauser ammunition…..
At this year’s 21st International Defence Industry Exhibition (MSPO is an acronym from Polish name of the fair: Międzynarodowy Salon Przemysłu Obronnego), almost 25,000 square metres of exhibition space was the showcase for 400 companies from 23 countries. It is a tradition of the MSPO to designate the Leading Nation, which has a national pavilion to promote its defense industry’s capabilities. This year was Turkey, which signified two important anniversaries in Polish-Turkish….
While military or law enforcement budgets often fixate on high end equipment procurement, it is the unspoken rule that trained personnel are the real commodity in any organization. There are multiple companies involved in producing ballistic protection systems. This business competition has not only spurred R&D, but also lowered the cost making it available to a wider range of clients besides the military; such as law enforcement, private security, and individual citizens. A leading ballistic protection….
With the creation of NATO, several programs were put into place for militaries of these nations to have some sort of compatibility. One part of that would be standardization of small arms ammunition. Throughout the NATO countries numerous calibers and different types of weapons were being used. The United States had great influence in the NATO ammunition trials, or it could be better said, they drove it. Even after World War II and the success of the StG44 Sturmgewehr or assault rifle, NATO countries….
There are many manufacturers making ammunition as well as remanufacturing it. Few have a reputation of being precision ammunition manufacturers let alone manufacturing military grade ammunition. But consider ammunition that is match grade loaded to military specifications? Trying to bridge match grade accuracy and ability to produce military reliability is very difficult. Loading any precision round is difficult in mass production. But there is one company out there that has done it, and that is Black Hills Ammunition owned by Jeff Hoffman and his wife Kristi, who is a co-owner and an integral, indispensable part of….
Under Land 40 Phase 2 (L40/2), the Australian Defence Materiel Organisation (DMO) are intending to deliver two new direct fire support weapons to the Army’s infantry battalions and special operations forces, and to the Royal Australian Air Force’s Airfield Defence Guards. The first, the Medium Direct Fire Support Weapon (MDFSW), has already been selected and fielded, with the M3 Carl Gustav 84mm recoilless rifle replacing the M2 variant previously in service. The second system, slated to be a “Light Weight Automatic Grenade Launcher (LWAGL)….
The name Hornady is well known throughout the industry. Hornady is a much diversified company being involved in ammunition production, manufacturing bullets for the reloading community, manufacturing reloading supplies (presses, scales, etc.) and so on. The ammunition business provides advanced projectiles for commercial hunters, target shooters and law enforcement….
The NG7 is a light machine gun (LMG) operated by a gas system called “gas impact.” The firearm starts the shooting cycle with the open bolt to avoid cook-off after prolonged fire. When the trigger is pulled the bolt, that is locked in a full rear position, is released and starts to go forward pushed by two compressed recoil springs. During its travel a cartridge is taken from the belt, chambered and the bolt, thanks to its locking lugs, engages the corresponding lugs in the barrel extension and locks. The bolt carrier, in this phase, keeps going forward….
As Latin America’s largest country and with a population of 200 million souls, Brazil faces massive defense problems. Although it does not have to cope with any imminent threat from overseas or any of the ten bordering nations, properly watching and defending 8.5 million square kilometers of land territory and an unbroken coastline of just about 7,500 kilometers long (corresponding to 3.5 million square kilometers of territorial waters) requires substantial effort from the three independent military services, the Exército Brasileiro (Army)….
The B&T AG (Brügger & Thomet) Police Equipment Show took place over the 12-13 of June 2013. The show, which is an invitation only event, is organized by Brügger & Thomet and takes place in their home city of Thun, in Switzerland. The show, as the name implies, is aimed at the law enforcement community and is held at the large spacious Swiss Army range facility of Guntelsey on the outskirts of Thun. There were two indoor exhibition areas, the ground floor and first floor of the range firing points where nearly 40 manufacturers and distributers had more than ample space to display their product lines….
The Pacific Salt shares size, basic blade design and handle ergonomics with the Endura, but this generation was purpose built to survive maritime environments. Most notably, Spyderco forged their 3.8-inch PlainEdged blade out of H-1 Steel. (Steel generally consists of iron alloyed with carbon, (1050 usually around 1% carbon by weight as opposed to H-1 with .15%). The Carbon provides hardness and strength, but carbon steels corrode easily. Stainless Steels also add manganese, nickel, chromium, molybdenum, boron, and vanadium….
The only military trade show in Taiwan, the Taiwan Aerospace and Defense Technology Exposition was held from August 15 – 18, 2013 in Taipei, Taiwan. As the premier opportunity for the Taiwanese Ministry of Nation Defense to highlight equipment and capabilities, the show was hosted at the Taiwan World Trade Center, in the shadow of the Taipei 101 skyscraper. Although the show was a means to highlight and display of Taiwan’s military might, a number of international exhibitors were present to show off weapons….
The speed at which the United States geared up for World War II in the days after Pearl Harbor must be the paramount industrial wonder of the 20th century. Peacetime manufacturing and occupations quickly became part of the war effort with an agility that seems impossible today. Many manufacturers with no experience in small arms were tasked with converting all or part of their operations over to produce them. Singer Manufacturing, Rock-Ola, and several divisions of General Motors are among these well-known to have made the hasty transition….
In order to understand the .408 Cheytac anti-materiel rifles, it’s important to start with the cartridges. The .408 cartridge was originally produced by two different companies – Tactical High Energy Impact Solutions (THEIS) and Lost River Ballistics Technology – both defunct as of this date. The parent cartridge was a .505 Gibbs; developed in the early 1900s (1911?) as a dangerous game cartridge originally firing a 525 grain bullet at 2,300 feet per second for 6,180 foot-pounds of muzzle energy. Very effective on anything that walked….
Maneuvering with pinpoint accuracy and efficiency at night as well as in daytime requires situational awareness, target classification and target identification capability. Cooled thermal imagers provide superior range performance and large field of view at night and in adverse weather conditions, with a compact design and sensitive detectors with high resolution together with large depth of focus. As part of the Soldier Modernization Program IdZ, the Federal Armed Forces of Germany implemented a cooled thermal sight for infantry weapons….
The corporate symbol for Sirarms rifles is the halberd; a two-handed pole weapon (5 to 6 feet long) that consists of an axe blade topped with a spike mounted on a long shaft with a hook on the back side of the axe for grappling mounted combatants. For over two centuries, the halberd was one of the most valuable tools of war in use among soldiers, a weapon that allowed them to be able to withstand cavalry charges, unseat the attackers and counter attack. The emotional appeal to its effectiveness in the field therefore makes the brand mark….
In the early 1980s a requirement came down from the U.S. Army for a new pistol that would replace the legendary but well aged M1911 pistol. With the new NATO standardization, the new pistol would be chambered in the 9x19mm NATO cartridge: hence the beginning of the XM9 program. This would be entered by several manufacturers including Smith & Wesson, Colt, FN, H&K, Star, Beretta and SIG Sauer. After the testing was done and the reports were in, there were only two left standing: the Beretta 92F and the SIG Sauer P226….
In 1939, just a month after the joint German-Soviet invasion of Poland in September, the Soviet Red Army invaded Finland. The primary reason used for the 30 November 1939 attack was to reclaim territory lost during the Russian Civil War of 1917. Soviet leaders wanted to extend their borders primarily as a buffer zone to protect the city of Leningrad from a foreign invasion….
The M203 grenade launcher has been in continuous service since 1968. It was developed during the Vietnam War to get the grenadier into the battle when his launcher was either out of grenades or in an area where it would be ineffective. The grenadier armed with a standalone M79 grenade launcher was considered a man down in an ambush or firefight because he did not have a rifle. The thought was to combine both the grenade launcher with the M16A1 rifle. Now we have severely increased the firepower on that individual level….
During the 12 long years of brutal and bloody internal conflict in the 1980s, military correspondents mentioned the Salvadorian Maestranza countless times. Among others, the Armed Forces National Workshop built over 130 guntrucks and IFVs in the 70-80s, using Jupiter (7 ton), Man 630 (5 ton), Unimog (2 ton), GM/Ford (5 ton) trucks, F-250 and Dodge M37B pickups, as well as 23 tracked Woodmaster tractors. It also tackled the conversion of elderly Madsen LMGs to 7.62mm caliber, many other small arms transformations, and became notorious for performing conversions and modifications….
On April 24-25, 2013 the Fourth Rheinmetall Infantry Symposium was held in Unterlüß, Lower Saxony, Germany. Once again it was organized by Rheinmetall Defence’s division of Rheinmetall Weapons and Ammunition. SADJ was there with about two dozen defense media writers invited from three continents. This year’s Symposium gathered over 200 participants from several countries, mostly European NATO members and neutral countries….
The project to replace the current M4 Carbine, the Army’s standard infantry rifle, started in 2011 with a request for proposals from small-arms manufacturers. An analysis of the proposals resulted in a shortlist of six, with designs from Fabrique Nationale of Belgium, Heckler & Koch of Germany, Beretta of Italy and three US companies: Colt, Adcor Defense, and a joint effort by Remington, Magpul and Bushmaster. The competition reached Phase II – testing the shortlisted carbines – with a decision expected by the end of 2013….
The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) returned to China’s bosom on 1 July 1997. As troops of the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) rode into the former British colony, it was clear that the sun had finally set on 156 years of British rule. One thing of interest on that day in 1997 was the fact that arriving Chinese troops were wielding a hitherto unseen type of weapon. Known as the QBZ95 (or Type 95) assault rifle, it marked a distinct break with convention for the Chinese military – it was a bullpup design and it introduced a brand new….
Over the last several years many new calibers have been introduced to the AR-type platform; from the .204 Ruger, 6.8mm Rem SPC, 6.5 Grendel, 7.62x39mm, 5.45x39mm, 5.7mm, .450 Bushmaster, .458 SOCOM, .50 Beauwolf and .499 LWR. These are just for the AR-15 platform; there is a whole other array to the AR-10. Of all those mentioned, the only one who has really done well is the 6.8mm Rem SPC. There are several manufacturers of rifles as well as ammunition. As of this writing this author could not find any ammunition….
There are many hundreds of vehicles across the world in international peace making/peace keeping operations that are not equipped with remote controlled weapon protection systems on the vehicle’s roof that can protect the gunner who could sit in the inside of the armoured vehicle. Many vehicles are only equipped with a machine gun that the gunner has to operate unprotected when he/she is staying in the vehicle’s roof opening. In situations like this, the gunner is exposed to a very dangerous unprotected situation being a target for snipers….
Many years before WWII started, small arms designers of the world noted that in the real world the power of the rifle round was seldom used to the full extent. The late 19th Century saw the extraordinary surge in rifle shooting distance capability. The introduction of smokeless cartridges with small caliber jacketed bullets extended the individual effective range of fire far beyond the limitations of the open sights. At 2,000 yards, where these bullets were still lethal, a man-sized target would hide completely behind even the thinnest….
Early last June 2012, news from Paraguay indicated that 321 police agents had been dispatched to Curuguaty. The police officers, supported by a couple of helicopters, were there to disband several peasants who had occupied a Ranch owned by a local politician. However, the aftermath of the police raid left 11 peasants and 6 police officers dead. Local reports later claimed that the police reinforcements had been ambushed by elements of a local peasant community organization (Liga Nacional de Carperos), and among those killed….
The first edition was published in 2008 and takes the reader through the development of the assault rifle, manufacturers in Russia, detailed looks at the 1st-3rd generation AK-47 rifles, AKM update, AK-74 family of weapons, AK-100 series, other Kalashnikov designs, Warsaw Pact countries manufacturing AK-type rifles, AK-derivatives, AK comes to America, made in USA AK-47 rifles, magazine and ammunition variations. The second edition greatly enhances the reader’s knowledge by the addition of many detailed photographs of various models, additional information and updated information of the current status of this family of weapons….
DSEI is the largest fully integrated defense and security show in the world, featuring Air, Naval, Land and Security show content. Based in ExCeL, London every two years, the event provides unrivalled access to key markets across the globe. Combining a high quality of exhibitors across the supply chain, networking opportunities and the ability to see new technologies first hand on the show floor, DSEI provides an inspirational experience to nearly 30,000 visitors…..
5.56mm is the ammunition of the infantrymen who have used it for the combat at short distance since the war in Vietnam. Its current range for battlefield use is approximately 440 yards (400 m) and its performance improved with the introduction of the 5.56mm NATO whose SS 109 bullet made it possible to engage up to 650 yards (600 m). For shooting up to 1,100 yards (1,000 m), sniper rifles and machine-guns in 7.62mm NATO are used….
In his 1922 book, Story of the North West Frontier Province, author JM Ewart writes: “That gap in the low hills (south of Peshawar city) marks the Kohat Pass, which really has a better claim to being a historic highway of invasion than the Khyber itself. By it, across a neck of Afridi country, runs the Frontier Road to Kohat and Bannu, to Dera Ismail Khan and Razmak. The villages of the pass are famed for a strange industry — the manufacture entirely by hand of rifles and ammunitions, especially rifles, to the eye so like the products of European arsenals…
Today’s ground forces are preparing for tomorrow’s demanding missions in which combat strategies and tactics must be seamlessly implemented – from open to urban terrain and through a three-block war scenario. Saab has extensive experience in supporting ground forces with solutions designed to meet the need for enhanced operational capabilities at a higher level of effectiveness. A weapon’s multi-role capacity can mean the difference between combat success and failure. In 1978 during a patrol mission in a valley in Lebanon, Norwegian soldiers….
Barrett Firearms Manufacturing, based in Murfreesboro, Tennessee, was founded in 1982 and was centered on Ronnie Barrett’s idea of a shoulder-fired .50 BMG rifle. Many…
The Global War on Terrorism has put to the test many new weapon systems adopted in the post Cold War period. Many of those weapons and tactics had never really been tested in a real combat environment. They worked well in the lab and in testing but never really saw combat until the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Small arms were no exception; in fact they would be the first to be put on trial….
ABOVE: We first spotted this polymer and brass .50 caliber BMG ammo at MARCORSYSCOM’s display at MDM way back in 2009. We’re pleased to report…
The Galil, the first IDF assault rifle, has been completely redesigned by IWI engineers developing a version that incorporates a fair number of improvements concerning ergonomics and materials, giving to this military classic a new operative life. When Ysrael Galil and Ya’akov Lior designed the Galil they were solving an emergency. During 1973, Israelis were equipped with the Belgian FAL in two versions: the “Aleph” model as individual weapon and the “Beth” model…
The Russians still say that the 65 year old Avtomat Kalashnikova would soldier on for decades, yet they are painfully aware that it’s getting out of touch with modernity – despite numerous modernizations. That’s precisely why they created the AK-12, or 5th Generation Avtomat Kalashnikova, presented in January 2012. The AK-100 series successor wasn’t created overnight – the first models were already evaluated by 2009. The new rifle even got designated then as the AK-200 – but still arguments abounded whether that should be another modified 100-series rifle….
Recently there has been an upswing in interest regarding the weapons of North Korea. This is due not only to the current saber rattling in the region and the changing of the leadership, but to how difficult it is to obtain accurate information as well as the disinformation campaigns that have been successfully waged by the North Korean propaganda bureaus. Heebum Hong and Dan Shea have studied the small arms of North Korea for decades….
Col. Lewis was a United States Military Academy (West Point) graduate (1884) and spent twenty-five years in the United States Army assigned primarily to Coastal Artillery units. He was a keen inventor and received a number of patents for artillery rangefinders and other artillery related equipment. He also studied in Europe for several years learning about the armament industry. It was while in Europe that he discovered that America was at least ten years behind in artillery and small arms manufacturing – particularly machine guns….
It was clear that the EF88 is significantly better than its predecessors, and exhibits all of the traits of a competitive modern assault rifle. Within its niche as an advanced bullpup rifle, it has little competition – perhaps only from the IMI Tavor series – and exceeds the standards provided by Defence under Land 125. Thales Australia have managed to correct some of the weaknesses of the F88SA2 (poor cheek weld, excessive weight….
The famous MAG-58 General Purpose Machine Gun has its roots in John Browning’s 1918 Browning Automatic Rifle: the BAR. FN Herstal’s relationship with Browning is well-known and it’s no surprise that the excellent BAR operating system would evolve in their hands. The FN Model D BAR added features such as a quick-change barrel, but the core operating system was alive and well throughout the evolution. Put simply….
One day in November 2010, the battle to get Antonio Ezekiel Cárdenas Guillén, one of the most feared and wanted drug lords in Mexico, had lasted eight-hours. The Scorpions – the capo’s own army – presented a stiff resistance to hundreds of soldiers and federal policemen while a 660-strong Marine battalion fought its way to his whereabouts in Matamoros. This is a small city in Tamaulipas, just across the border from Texas. The government forces…
At the 2012 SHOT Show, ArmaLite introduced their new and long anticipated AR-10A family of rifles. This is an AR-10 that uses the standard magazine rather than the proprietary M14 based magazine that the ArmaLite AR-10B rifles have used since their introduction in 1995. To trace the history a little, the ArmaLite AR-10B series was introduced to the commercial market in 1995, which was one year after the infliction of the 1994 assault weapon ban that prohibited production of magazines that held more than 10 rounds for commercial purposes. Former U.S. Army Ordnance officer and President of ArmaLite Mark Westrom had a dilemma on his hands while….
Since 2005, the Afghan Uniformed Police (AUP) have been providing a paramilitary force capable of stabilizing reconstruction efforts and will continue to provide a long term security force for the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. This essay takes a look at the small arms, equipment, and organization of a Police unit based out of the Loy Kolay Precinct, Nawa district in Helmand province. During the time frame of this article, 1st Battalion, 9th Marine Infantry Regiment (1/9) was supporting the AUP and ANA positions in Nawa Ye-Baraksi district. Since then, 2/6 has taken over. (A note on abbreviations, AUP was formally designated Afghan National Police (ANP)….
Choosing the name of the most popular home video cassette system for your nation’s rifle might not have been intentional, but that’s the association that the Višenamjenska Hrvatska Strojnica (multipurpose Croatian automatic weapon) would not be able to shake off easily. Anyone who knows anything about weapons would also recognize the source of the stylistic inspiration – the French FA MAS F1 “Bugle,” an icon of the 1980s on par with the Phillips video cassette recorder system called the Video Home System….
There’s nothing else like it in any of the other branches of America’s Armed Forces. Its uniquely lethal products, the work of a small and tightly-knit group, must function flawlessly and consistently 24/7 for the Corps’ Scout Snipers and other hard-chargers in some of the world’s most harsh terrain and weather. Other weapons and custom loaded ammunition created there must also consistently deliver pinpoint accuracy for world class shooters of the USMC’s Competition In Arms Rifle and Pistol Teams….
Debuting in 1982, Glock has revolutionized the foundation on which military and law enforcement handguns sit. Glock pistols not only revolutionized the material in which military grade pistols are manufactured but the sheer market share they hold is nothing short of amazing. Entering the market as a polymer frame firearm with the fewest parts of any firearm of its kind with utter reliability and dependability, Glock….
The International Air and Defense Fair (FIDAE) that takes place in Chile every two years rebounded from the quake that shook the region in 2010 with the exhibition in 2012 proving to be 25% larger than the previous event. Two years ago, FIDAE took place against all odds and only a few days after the country was hit by one of the biggest earthquakes and tsunamis in history. The exhibition took place as a showpiece to demonstrate that Chile had fortitude and organizational skills to allow the show to go on, as relief assistance was taking place in parallel to….
Friends and foes of the M249 Squad Automatic Weapon in the U.S. Marine Corps’ infantry fire teams have been engaged in often fierce verbal firefights dating back years before this innovative light machine gun entered Leatherneck service; soon after the Army adopted FN’s MINIMI in 1984. While the reasons for this are many and varied, astute observers often cite two main points of contention: Advocates of belt fed weapons like the M249 admire their relative portability and high volume of fire…
This story begins in 1925. That year the Red Army requested the development of a large caliber machine gun with the intention of using it as an anti-aircraft and anti-armor weapon. Initial research suggested a caliber of 12.7mm (0.5 inch, or “five lines” in contemporary Russian measuring system, where “one line” was equivalent of 1/10 of an inch), with the earliest work being based on the British .50 Vickers cartridge. However, it was soon discovered that the British round was not effective enough, so an indigenous round…
Sweden was not shy in their attempt to modernize their army at the turn of the twentieth century by equipping it with modern machine guns. The m/95 Maxim, the m/99 Nordenfeldt (Konstruction Bergman-Nordenfeldt) and m/00 Hotchkiss all found a home at one time or another in the Swedish army from 1895 to 1914. From 1914 the m/14 Schwarzlose was adopted and widely used. The first 511 Schwarzlose machine guns were imported from Austria but in 1917 Sweden began making them at the Carl Gustafs Stads Gevärsfaktori (GF) in Eskilstuna….
For the past several years SADJ has been following progress of the US Marine Corps’ program to identify and field a suitable alternative to the M249 Squad Automatic Weapon. While the 5.56mm belt fed SAW is touted as a relatively portable weapon that can pump out a high volume of fire, many of the Leatherneck MOS 0311 grunts who have been humping this twenty-plus pound package since 1985 have been asking for something lighter, simpler and more reliable….
To appreciate the complexity of situations where police or military forces charged with peacekeeping duties utilize force, one must conceptualize force not as a static concept but rather as a continuum of responses, ranging from verbal commands, as a minor exertion of force, to deadly force, the maximum amount of force possible to apply. A use-of-force continuum relies on the concept of multiple categories of increasing officer perceptions of suspect resistance linked to similar groupings of the officer’s response to those perceptions….